People back in antiquity were just as innovative in managing pest problems as we are today. Some of their pest control methods became ritualized, some became obsolete (such as using sulfur), and some were impractical (such as “slash-and-burn” in heavily populated areas). The foundation for contemporary farming methods, however, remains the knowledge that has been built up through the ages through trial and error. Early methods of controlling pests were documented mostly by Europeans.
Soon after Creation of Man (Documented in Genesis), between 3,000 BC and 1,000 BC, farmers discovered the fundamentals of what we now recognize as pest management. They learned how to genetically manipulate crops and optimize genetic diversity by cross-specific and within-specific mixing; they manipulated biological communities to their advantage; they used chemicals such as sulfur to combat pests, and they used and described a number of cultural techniques, such as the raising of mounds, that allowed them to farm sustainably.
Jeremiah 33:6 – Behold, I will bring it health and cure, and I will cure them, and will reveal unto them the abundance of peace and truth.
From 1,000 BCE to 500 CE
According to written records, farming was institutionalized by the formalized study of plant diseases (Theophrastus, 370 BC), development of better controlled treatments (Democritus, 470 BC), and expanded uses of biological controls in China (324 BCE). Despite this, pests and termites continued to remain a pressing problem, and humans focused their mental and physical lives on disaster prevention. For instance, in Roman times, grain farmers worshipped the wheat-rust gods and goddesses–Rubigus and Robigo–who, if unpleased, could destroy wheat harvests.
In western Europe, lack of security, as well as loss of knowledge, infrastructure, commerce, and technology following the collapse of the western Roman empire, significantly affected advances in pest-termite control management. Thanks to the Byzantine Empire and the Turks, knowledge was brought back via Arabic documents and their translations of ancient Greek and Roman texts. These formed the foundation of the Western Renaissance we know.
Psalms 16:8 – I have set the LORD always before me: because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.
During the Renaissance
Humans significantly advanced understanding of insects, ticks, termites, pests, rodents and other aspects of farming. The taxonomic work of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek on microscopy brought new tools to the pest-termite control management field, which laid the groundwork for the explosive growth in knowledge. The Modern and Post-Modern worlds began trading with each other, and farming crops selected from small genetic bases. As long as those crops were separated from the pests and pathogens they had co-evolved with in their original environments, crops thrived. Without quarantine, however, the pathogens and insect pests were unintentionally imported, causing catastrophic consequences.
For instance, Phytophthora infestans, a pathogen, killed potatoes plants across Europe. In Ireland, where populations relied on potatoes, famine took an enormous toll.
Psalms 40:2 – He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, and established my goings.
The Irish Potato Famine spurred a revolution in our understanding of plant diseases and in integrating diverse treatments. From the late nineteenth century through the middle twentieth century, chemical, biological, and genetic approaches to termite control and pest control advanced dramatically. Key to the understanding of diseases and termite and pest control was a debunking of spontaneous generation theories.
Spontaneous Generation! Most people believed that mildews and germs were generated spontaneously — “from nothing”.
Louis Pasteur, in France, showed this was not true. Another pioneer, Robert Koch (1843-1910), showed germs caused diseases. He demonstrated germ theory by passing blood from animals infected with B. anthracis, the bacteria responsible for the disease anthrax, to healthy animals, which caused healthy animals to exhibit symptoms of anthrax.
These two landmark studies opened the door for effective disease-causing germ research. Chemical insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides marked the start of a new era of pest-termite control management, starting with devices that effectively dispersed chemicals, and early uses of the mixtures of Paris Green and Bordeaux.
Job 11:18 – And thou shalt be secure, because there is hope; yea, thou shalt dig about thee, and thou shalt take thy rest in safety.
Paris Green, an arsenic-containing dye, was used to produce wallpaper. Grape farmers would spray this dye onto their grapes to reduce the chance of passersby stealing them when passing. Apparently, the Paris green did not just keep people away, it kept insects away, too. The Bordeaux Mixture, developed in France in the 1860s, was a mix of copper sulfate, lime, and water used to keep grapes from developing Powdery Mildwack.
Albert Coebele traveled to Australia and found Vedalia, a tiny ladybug, which fed on cottony-cushion scales. He brought a few of those beetles back and released them in California, where they have controlled the cottony-cushion scales since then.
John 3:16 – For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
Successfully grafting of resistant grape rootstocks has produced varieties resistant to the pest problems. For example, phylloxera, an insect that originated in the New World and was imported into Europe along with American grape varieties, devastated European vineyards. European grapes were saved only through a shrewd grafting of European varieties onto American grape rootstocks. Genetic breeding programs developed crops resistant to such debilitating diseases as fungus blight, and marked the start of a new direction in the control of plant diseases.
the first cases of resistance were reported from an insecticide, long before a new class of chemicals, synthetics, were introduced. The Chemical Age overlapped with the discovery and use of synthetic pesticides. Although synthetics were reported to have been used on plant pathogens as early as the 1930s, the start of the chemical age is generally marked by the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT in 1939. DDT (dichloro, diphenyl, trichloroethane) and other synthetics such as carbamates and organophosphates were very successful and efficient.
The Chemical Age
marked an end of integrated approaches to pest control. Because of the seeming efficacy of synthetic insecticides, it seemed that there was no need for the other tactics in pest management. Consumers came to expect 100% blemish-free products, and farmers came to expect 100% pest control. In addition, the chemical industry became a powerful business entity, with sales soaring, particularly in the post-World War II period.
1 Timothy 5:8 – But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
Most farmers sprayed yearly, with no monitoring of pests. Pesticide usage increased steadily from 1950 to 1970. Then came the pesticide challenge: the wide spread development of pesticide-resistant insects.
Such resistance makes some pesticides less effective, and it encouraged producers to apply pesticides more frequently at higher rates in order to get their pests under control. Farmers were caught in the pesticide dependency cycle. Cases of human health problems, groundwater contamination, and eradication of natural biological controls led to early efforts at integrated pest management (IPM) in the late 1960s (see the video on Pesticides, listed under Resources). The seeds for a pesticide backlash were planted in the 1950s, with the development of pesticide resistance such as DDT, and the demonstration of severe environmental and human health problems. Agriculture, though, was reliant on chemical inputs; the lobbying by interest groups was powerful, and consumers expected inexpensive, tainted foods.
The Environmental Age
Thus, there was little movement toward alternative practices of management. It was only after the influence of Rachel Carsons book, Silent Spring, that a shift began. Published in 1962, Silent Spring detailed the dangers of excessive pesticide use, particularly DDT, and it lit a fire under the environmental movement. This movement gave birth to several major pieces of legislation, and to the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency.
Although synthetic pesticides are still the dominant form of pest management for many crops, individuals have options for which products (e.g., duration, selectivity, and mammalian toxicity) to use. Since the mid-1980s, scientists have developed a number of new methods for controlling pests–transgenic crops, for instance, which are resistant to diseases, arthropods, and other pests.
INTERESTING FACT – There are Homemade Pest Control solutions you can make that will take care of your general insect needs.
1 John 4:18 – There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love.
History of Pest Control Insecticide Use
The practice of agriculture first began around 10,000 years ago
In the fertile crescent region of Mesopotamia (parts of modern-day Iraq, Turkey, Syria, and Jordan), where edible seeds were originally collected by populations of hunters and gatherers. Then came cultivation of wheat, barley, peas, lentils, chickpeas, bitter vetch, and flax, as populations became more settled and agriculture became the lifestyle.
Similarly, rice and millet were domesticated in China
About 7500 years ago rice and sorghum were grown in the Sahel region of Africa. Local crops were domesticated independently in West Africa, possibly also New Guinea and Ethiopia. Three regions in the Americas independently domesticated maize, squash, potatoes, and sunflowers.
It was understood that farmed crops would be subject to pests and diseases
Leading to a great loss of crop production, and an ever-present danger of starvation of populations. Even today, with advances in farming sciences, losses from pests and diseases are between 10-90 per cent, averaging between 35-40 per cent, across all the food and fiber crops potentially available. Thus, there is great motivation to seek ways of overcome problems caused by pests and diseases.
- Best Rodent Control MethodsRats and mice are different animals, and the methods used to control them will vary. The following recommendations will help residents to lessen their risk of illness or personal injury from rodents. Removing sources of food, water, and items that offer rodents a place to live is the best way to avoid exposure to rodents. Where appropriate, manage rodents using an integrated pest control approach, which includes environmental hygiene, adequate food storage, rodent-proofing, trapping, and poisoning. Read more »
- Best Scorpion Control MethodsUse The Combination of the Following Scorpion Control Methods For The Best Results: Insecticide, Homemade Pesticide, Scorpion Sealing, Barrier Treatments - One of the primary options for scorpion control. A professional pest control technician or product you buy at the store (heads up, the product you buy at the store is not as potent as the kind we can get as a licensed pest control company) can help to identify and address any underlying problems that may be attracting scorpions to your property, such as bugs like crickets, etc. Read more »
- Spider Control Using These Indoor and Outdoor PlantsStrongly scented plants, specifically herbs, can deter spiders from invading the home. Spiders are always looking for food and heat. That is why they venture in to the home. Spider webs can accumulate quickly and as soon as they abandon them, they acquire lint and dust. That, and nobody enjoys having a spider stroll throughout the kitchen floor. Read more »
- Spider Control Using Chrysanthemum FlowersPyrethrin is rapidly turning into a integrated pest control management system preference due to the fact it’s biodegradable and breaks down with hardly any (what we could call mild) oxygen exposure. It’s a herbal neurotoxin, meaning that the substance assaults the nervous system of the insects, like insecticide; and the great thing is does not harm birds and mammals. Read more »
- How to Get Rid of PigeonsA huge FAQ - How can humans get rid of pigeons? There are pigeon troubles all over from birds on roofs, balconies, and industrial facilities to lingering on the sidewalk. Pigeons are creating a hazard. Irrespective of the mess, pigeon feces are corrosive. It can eat thru metal or even concrete. Read more »
- Facts About Scorpion Species in ArizonaThere are several different types of scorpions in Arizona, and you will come across some here and there. Scorpions carry poison in their spines and have varying degrees of toxicity. Most types of scorpions are not dangerous, but there are some types of scorpions that you are likely to encounter in Arizona that are among the most venomous in America. Read more »
- Facts About Ant Species in ArizonaLearn about the facts about ants in Arizona. Learn about the most common species of ants in Arizona. The most common ants to Arizona are carpenter ants, fire ants, pavement ants and Argentine ants. Find out what ants like to eat, how they form their colonies, their behavior and how to prevent ant infestation in your home or residence. Read more »
- Learn About Dry & Damp Wood TermitesInfestation is usually limited to one area of a house but can be widespread. Termites can enter a house through exposed wood outside under the trim of the home, through objects such as wooden furniture, etc. However, majority of termite infestation happens from termites building tubes up through the house trim. Cracks in concrete walls and foundations can form hollow blocks along the path the termites take to infest the house. The termite lives in the soil around the house, penetrates the wood without touching the floor and builds mud pipes from the floor to the wood where they will not be attacked. Read more »
- How to Stop Termites During the SummerThe summer weather creates an ideal environment for the breeding and research of termites. Many species are more active in summer, not to mention that we tend to spend more time outdoors, which makes it easier to search for termite sites and infestations. Due to the warmer temperatures, summer is also the best season to get swarms of termites. Read more »
- Invasion of The Electric Suction SweepersThe Sucker-Aliens have invaded the earth! They protect humans from alien parasites, viruses and bacteria - these robots aren't the scary Aliens and UFOs that have been popularized in American cinema... Mold, pet hair, urine and fecal matter, old skin, dust, and dirt all get trapped inside the carpet; including severe forms like particles, which can cause the development of a variety of diseases. In most cases, just vacuuming and cleaning the floor on your own may be enough to get rid of all these things. What’s worse is that pet urine and fecal matter carry bacteria too, odor and chemicals such as ammonia, which can irritate the nose and the lungs, animal waste can be especially harmful for young children, who are frequently exposed to soiled carpets. Read more »
- Tour of Palma Restaurant and How Cleanliness is Good for BusinessAs a restaurant owner, your job is to go above and beyond what guests expect. Simply put, that is accomplished through creating a guests experience that is second-to-none, whether through the atmosphere, your service, or the food. Your particular value proposition plays a role in that experience as well. Let us focus, though, on this first element, which is also, incidentally, the first thing that guests notice about your restaurant: its atmosphere. Every restaurant goer feels like a superstar at this place! Why do you feel like a superstar here? You get amazing food and you feel like all eyes are on you - that makes you a superstar. Read more »
- Facts About Noroviruses, Spread & Safety EducationBest Hide and Seek Champion Goes To: The Coronavirus: This is not a tongue and cheek thing. This virus is not the #1 vomiting and diarrhea causer in America and the World because it is easy to find and eradicate. If you ever played hide and seek with a good hider seeker and you will find out - you cannot win. This virus is so common that in prestigious Medical Journal, The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, "The illness is generally mild, but it can cause sever disease with associated dehydration and electrolyte imbalance that may require hospitalization and aggressive treatment with intravenous fluids." Read more »
- Coronavirus Disinfection of Phoenix Commercial and Residential Properties a Must Needed ServiceThis is not a fear tactic trying to sell you a service you do not need. America is at war with a hidden enemy, in fact, we are at war with germs all the time. Learn how the coronavirus is a norovirus and how you can protect yourself. The coronavirus is highly contagious and harmful for the most vulnerable individuals of our population. Savings lives and stopping the spread of the coronavirus is of the upmost importance for Arizona and Americans in general. Too put it in to perspective on the cost of not sanitizing your business - U.S. employers paid nearly $530 billion per year for illness-related lost productivity costs. That comes out to nearly $3,200 per employee, per year. This is a study and report conducted by Integrated Benefits Institute (IBI), a non-profit health and productivity research organization. Read more »
- Having a Clean Home Improves Relationships Phoenix, AZAll of which make it increasingly difficult to sustain any kind of relationship. Depleted energy makes it hard to keep up with children who are full of life and always on the go. Date nights and outings suddenly become undesirable and intimidating. Not to mention, libido becomes significantly decreased because the body is simply focusing on more pressing matters such as fighting off those foreign entities that made their way from the dusty china hutch and floor straight into to your lungs. Depression is another complication associated with respiratory illnesses such as COPD because it can affect your ability to do things that you enjoy. Doing something as simple as making your bed each morning can boost your chances of sleeping better considerably. When you sleep better, your mood and energy are also likely to improve, which will give you an opportunity to go out and do all those fun things that you and your partner or you and your friends have planned. Read more »
- Arizona’s All In One Cleaning Solution – Carpet Tile Stone & House CleaningKamil has an Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification and his mother and co-owner, Ludmila Tumova, has over 30-years experience in the janitorial and house cleaning industry. Combined, they have over 40-years experience. “We take pride in our work. Every customer has different needs and so a different approach is needed for every customer,” Kamil continues. “We do not put 100% customer satisfaction on our website as a ‘feel good’ call to action… A guarantee is only as good as the service. We put it on our website because we mean it and because our customers deserve it” Kamil says with a smile, “and that is what we are known for.” Read more »
- 5 Tips: Keep Your Arizona Carpet and Floors Allergen-FreeIf you don’t have a pet and are considering getting a pet it would be best to choose an animal that requires minimal upkeep. A fish or the like would probably be the best option for people with asthma, but if the homeowner simply can’t resist investing in a feline or canine try looking for one the is already house-trained and that sheds little to none. A good place to start looking could be a rescue animal center or the pound. A female pet is recommended above a male because male cats and dogs tend to have a habit of marking their territory within the home which can cause odors and stains in sofas and carpet to become worse. If pollen can travel thousands of miles it can most definitely infiltrate a house. Pollen makes its way into a home several ways: clothes, pets, and air circulation. It is impossible to keep your house 100% pollen free, especially during the seasons when pollen levels peak. However, a large percentage of pollen can be stopped from entering the home by simple keeping all windows and entryways of the home shut as much as possible. Read more »
- Dirty Floors BAD for Arizona BusinessMops may be useful in cleaning quick spills of water, but should never be used when trying to remove dirt and grime in a commercial setting. Using a mop is like trying to remove dirt with dirt. It is more effective in redistributing dirt and filth than removing it. Once a dirty mop is wrung out into a clean bucket of water your clean bucket of water is no longer clean, but contaminated by residue, grease, oil, hair, dust and who knows what else. Using a modern floor-scrubbing device will allow you circulate fresh water unto your commercial floors, while keeping the used and contaminated water in a separate container that is easily emptied and disposed of once the cleaning job is finished. Read more »
- How Steam Cleaning Came AboutPesky stains and spots caused by oil, ink and grease spills also served as nuisance during the 1800s. Brooms and rug beating proved useless for stain and spot removal. Even vacuums, first invented by Ives W. McGaffey in 1868, later developed into the first electrical-powered vacuum (known as the “Model O”) by James Spangler in 1907 did very little to remove unwanted stains. In the 1830s, housewives discovered that scrubbing stains with lemon juice and a hot loaf of bread proved useful in treating spots caused by grease, ink and oil. Experimentation with stain removal and carpet cleaning continued well into the 1900s. Bull’s gall with water and flannel were used to scrub out heavily soiled areas of carpet, while other individuals used clay or chloroform solutions in their carpet cleaning process. Read more »
- Smart Home Lock Security IssuesQuick facts on smart home lock security issues and countermeasures Hackers can get in to your home easier than picking a standard door lock Security software is outdated as soon as you purchase smart door lock and walk out store Understanding the potential problems will help make your home or business more secure To Hack, or Not To Hack – That is the Question… And an even easier thing to do Smart and connected house locks can be exploited, allowing hackers to pick and choose the device with ease, researchers claim. The August Smart Lock Pro is a popular home appliance that attaches to a latch on the door and is operated via a digital app. It retails for $99-299 and is becoming increasingly popular with modern homeowners. Consultants at cybersecurity firm F-Secure found an exploitable design flaw in a brand of smart locks that could allow attackers to select the device. KeyWes Smart Lock’s firmware does not allow for updates, so the life of lock owners is at risk if hackers are able to open the locks before replacing them, according to the researchers. Smart locks are sold as devices that make accessing and leaving more convenient, but security researchers have discovered vulnerabilities that make it easier for hackers and thieves to do the same. Vulnerabilities in IoT devices such as wearables, rosaries and smart locks are problems that pose a direct risk of allowing potential hackers access to people’s homes. Think about hackers uploading instructions on how to hack the software of your favorite smart door lock brand (oh, they have done just that and you can find it in the highlighted links you see here). Then, someone who is bored or with ill-intention can simply look up the instructions and start hacking away. This literally gives hackers the ability to hack, or not to hack – it’s a very simple question – and an easier thing to do. For more information read “Amazon Ring Engineer Warns “Shut It Down Immediately” ” or “Amazon Key Helps Thieves Break Into Homes, Proving Importance of Having a Trusted Locksmith“ What Are Smart Locks? In-Depth Research Technology today has made a greater influence on many aspects of our life. The Home Automation System is a computerized and automated network of electronic devices fashioned to exhibit control over home appliances and to efficiently monitor them. Download and/or Read this resource in the formats below. Our website is on a secure SSL encrypted server. Please check jtskeysandlocks.com SSL status by clicking this link. Download PDF Is Older, Smarter? You can use a normal old key to open a door equipped with a smart lock, but most of them are not fast enough to discount the convenience and connectivity of your hand full of shopping bags and tiny people, making it difficult to search for your keys. Smart locks not only ensure that you never need to drop your hand to search for a key – they also have a lock that can unlock… Read more »
- Amazon Ring Engineer Warns “Shut It Down Immediately”Software Engineer for Amazon Ring Blows the Whistle Maricopa Residents Please Pay Attention to the Security Concerns Raised by Amazon Employees Max Eliaser says security company Ring should be “shut down immediately.” Amazon Ring is giving Facebook and Google personal information Ring Software is vulnerable to hackers who can hurt people JT’s Keys and Locks […] Read more »
- DRONES: The Next Threat to Maricopa County SecurityIn a world of technology, privacy and a sense of security is held in the balance. This couldn’t hold anymore true than for “invasion of privacy” victim interviewed this past Tuesday by Eric Cox of Channel 4 News, after an airborne drone device was caught on camera hovering just outside the resident’s Brentwood, Missouri window […] Read more »
- Cheap Websites and Internet Advertisements Fuel Predator Locksmith ScamsInternet Fuels Predator LocksmithsInternet Fuels Predator Locksmiths Be very careful with who you call to let you back into your vehicle or home. The internet is riddled with false posts and ads of predator locksmiths. Even YellowPages can not be a reliable source as admitted in the article below. The only credible source you can […] Read more »
- Locksmith Damages Property, Overcharges and Then Ignores Customer!The Problem With Locksmiths Who Use Call Centers! After reading this story, you should save JT’s Keys & Locks phone number 602.369.1553 or 520.303.0122 so you are never victimized like this woman in the article below. If you call a locksmith and it is a call center, or they call themselves a 24/7 locksmith center, […] Read more »
- BBB Receives Surge in Predator Locksmith ComplaintsBBB Warns American’s of a Huge Surge in Complaints of Predator Locksmith JT’s Keys & Locks has heard many horror stories about predator locksmiths taking advantage of customers. BBB has issued a warning of predator locksmith complaints to inform consumers. Many of the 247 locksmiths online are actually call centers in a different state. They […] Read more »
- Maricopa’s Real Estate Ray Recommends JT’s Keys & Locks“I FOUND MY LOCKSMITH FOR MARICOPA ARIZONA!!” Real Estate Ray of Maricopa is one of Maricopa’s most respected Real Estate agents and he knows a good deal when he sees one! “I finally found a good, trustworthy, hard-working locksmith that I can do business with in Maricopa Arizona” Real Estate Ray goes on to say “Prior to calling JT’s Keys & Locks, I called numerous locksmiths and was quoted a “come-out” or “trip fee” plus a minimum price ranging from $65-$70 dollars, then once the locksmith evaluated the “job” the fee could rise. With so many 24/7 call center’s who use predatory practices and fraudulent locksmiths destroying locks on purpose to rack up the final invoice for customers – we recommend that friends and family save JT’s Keys & Locks phone number in their phone 602.369.1553 or 520.303.0122 When you call a locksmith and feel uneasy about the conversation it is best to put the phone down and continue your search for a legitimate locksmith who has your best interest at heart. “After these conversations, I just did not feel comfortable in setting an appointment with any of the representatives that I spoke with. After speaking with Jeremiah with JT’s Keys & Locks, that all changed. For the service that I requested, I was quoted $40 and that’s it!” Thank you Real Estate Ray for your recommendation! JT’s Keys & Locks will always stand by our clients and will do everything we can to ensure 100% customer satisfaction at all times. Read Real Estate Ray’s article about us at “I FOUND MY LOCKSMITH FOR MARICOPA ARIZONA!!”. Read more »
- AARP Warns Seniors Targeted by Predator LocksmithsArizona Seniors are being Targeted by Predator Locksmiths, AARP Warns the Nation of Scammers and Frauds The holidays are here and it is important to protect the most vulnerable people in society. Seniors are being taken advantage of by predator locksmiths and call centers. With your help, we can end this unethical behavior and protect […] Read more »
- Amazon Key Helps Thieves Break Into Homes, Proving Importance of Having a Trusted LocksmithHow much security are homeowners willing to give up for convenience? In a new era where home security technology is being hacked and home burglaries are the rise – you will want to save our number in your phone 602-369-1553 or 520-303-0122 – with 100% customer satisfaction and over 100-five star reviews… you will be […] Read more »
4,500 years ago
Sumerians used sulfur compounds for the control of insects and ticks
3,200 years ago
Chinese used mercury and arsenical compounds to control lice.
Writings from ancient Greece and Rome
Indicate that religion, folk magic, and use of what could be termed chemical methods were tried to control plant diseases, weeds, insects, and animal pests. As there was no chemical industry, whatever products were used had to have been plant or animal derivatives, or, if mineral, readily obtainable or accessible. Thus, smoke, for instance, is recorded to have been used in fighting blight and fungus.
Smoke the Pests Out!
The principle was to set fire to certain materials, such as straw, chaff, trimmings from the hedge, crabs, fish, manure, or antlers from an ox or other animal, in a windward direction, in order to diffuse the smoke, which was to be malodorous, over an entire orchard, crops, or vineyard.
It was usually thought that this smoke would drive out the blight or the fungus. Smoke was also used to repel insects, as were several botanical extracts, such as bitter lupin or wild cucumber. Tar was also used on the tree trunks to catch the creeping insects. Weeds were controlled mostly through manual weeding, but a variety of “chemical” methods were described, such as using salt water or seawater.
Pyrethrum is another Pest Control Management Solution
Derived from the dried flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, the “Pyrethrum Daisy”, has been used as a pesticide for more than 2000 years.
Persians used the powder to protect stored grains, and later, crusaders brought the message back to Europe that dried, rounded daisies controlled lice.
Many inorganic chemicals were used from ancient times as insecticides
In fact the Bordeaux mixture, made from copper sulphate and lime, is still used to fight a variety of fungal diseases. Until the 1940s, either inorganic substances like sodium chlorate and sulfuric acid, or organic chemicals from natural sources, were still used extensively for pest control.
However, some pesticides are byproducts of the extraction of coal gas or other industrial processes. Thus, earlier organics like nitrophenols, chlorophenols, creosote, naphthalene, and oil petroleum were used as fungal and insecticides, while ammonium sulphate and sodium arsenate were used as herbicides. Drawbacks to many of these products were high rate of application, lack of selectivity, and phytotoxicity.
The rise in synthetic pesticides was precipitated during the 1940s
The discovery of effects from DDT, BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, parathion, captan, and 2,4-D drove this movement. These products were effective and cheap, with DDT being the most popular due to its wide-spectrum activities. DDT was used extensively, appeared to be of little toxicity to mammals, and reduced diseases carried by insects such as malaria, yellow fever, and typhus; as a result, Dr. Paul Mueller won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1949 for discovering its insecticidal properties. However, by 1946, resistance to DDT in houseflies was reported, and, due to widespread use, reports emerged of damage to non-target plants and animals, as well as problems with residuals. Throughout much of the 1950s, consumers and most decision-makers were not too concerned with potential health risks from the pesticides.
INTERESTING FACT – Termite Control uses termiticide which is put in the ground where it will not harm your home, children or pets.
Food was cheaper due to the new chemical formulations
With the new pesticides, there were no documented cases of people dying or being severely injured from their “normal” use. There were a few cases of damage due to improper use of the chemicals. But the new pesticides seemed pretty safe, especially when compared with arsenic forms that killed people in the 20s and 30s. Problems, however, might have arose from the indiscriminate use, and by 1962, Rachel Carson had highlighted them in her book Silent Spring. This brought home the problems that could arise from indiscriminate use of pesticides and led the way to safer, more eco-friendly products.
The World’s Most Popular Weed Killer Joins the Insecticide Market
Research on pesticides continued, and the 1970s and 1980s saw the introduction of glyphosate, the worlds biggest selling herbicide, low-use rates sulfonylureas, and imidazolinones (imi) weed killers, and the dinitroanilines and the families of aryloxyphenoxypropionates (fop) and cyclohexanediones (dim). For insecticides, there has been the synthesis of a third generation of pyrethroids, the introduction of avermectin, benzoylureas and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) as a spray treatment. This time also saw the introduction of triazoles, morpholines, imidazoles, pyrimidines, and the dicarboxamides families of fungicides. As many agrochemicals introduced during this period had only one mode of action, thereby making them more selective, problems of resistance occurred, and control strategies were introduced to counteract these adverse effects.
In the 1990s, research activities focused on finding new members of existing families that had greater selectivity and better environmental and toxicological profiles. In addition, new families of agrochemicals were introduced into the marketplace, such as triazolopyrimidine, triketone, and isoxazole herbicides, the fungicides strobilurin and azolone, and insecticides chloronicotinyl, spinosyn, fiprole, and diacylhydrazine. Many new agrochemicals can be used in grams instead of kilograms per hectare. New chemistry of insecticides and fungicides has allowed better resistance control and improved selectivity. This period has also seen the maturation of the older products with respect to their mode of application, introducing newer, user-friendly, more environmentally sound formulations.
Integrated pest management system
This is a term to label n an effort to deter pest populations from developing and reduce pesticide use and other interventions to levels economically justifiable, has also contributed to reduced pesticide usage. Todays P-management toolbox has expanded to include using GMO crops engineered to make their own pesticides or exhibit resistance to herbicides or broad-spectrum insecticide products. These include herbicide-tolerant crops such as soybeans, corn, canola, and cotton, as well as varieties of corn and cotton that are resistant to corn borings and bollworms, respectively.
In addition, use of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that deter development of pest populations and reduce agrochemical usage has become more prevalent. These changes have altered the character of pest management and potentially reduced and/or altered the character of the agrochemicals used.
INTERSTING FACT – The history of pest control technology is interesting. Take a look at it and learn how all the learning we have gathered over the years leads us to how we hire hunters to take care of our insect and rodent problems.